GLOBAL EXPERIENCE IN EXPORT-ORIENTED GROWTH
[2. Економічні науки]
Автор: Valeriia Bondar, assistant at the department of management of enterprises, National Technical University of Ukraine "Igor Sikorskiy Kyiv Politechnic Institute"
In the last few decades, on the international market, most countries followed the strategy of export-oriented growth or the strategy of stimulating exports for industrialization. The paradigm of export-oriented development replaced the paradigm of import substitution. Despite the success of the last development strategy in most countries of the world, including the countries of Europe and Southeast Asia, scientists agree that this strategy is losing its effectiveness, which prompts the search for alternative ways of economic development.
The general export orientation of the economy contributes to the increase in the level of competition, the introduction of innovations and the growth of innovative activity. In the international division of labor, Ukraine took its place, based on the available natural-geographic features and socio-economic conditions. However, at the current stage of economic development, these factors have gradually lost their decisive importance. Their place was taken by various scientific and technological factors, which domestic enterprises are unable to ignore. The outlined transformations strengthen the need to research the content of export-oriented development of enterprises .
The concept of economic development by stimulating exports was considered by various scientists. In foreign scientific works, the term "export-oriented industrialization" dominates, which means a trade and economic policy aimed at accelerating the process of industrialization of the country through the export of goods in the production of which the country has comparative advantages. Export-oriented development means opening domestic markets to foreign competition in exchange for access to the market of other countries. There is also the term "export-oriented strategy", which refers to the concept of economic development, the purpose of which is to attract investments and develop competitive industries in order to increase the level of exports. The export-oriented model of economic growth is the orientation of new industries mainly to foreign markets, usually with the involvement of foreign capital, or less often, the use of import quotas.
If we consider the experience of applying the strategy of export-oriented development by various countries of the world, where it was successful, we can notice the dependence among the export industries in which countries specialized at different stages of their development. At the beginning, most countries focused their attention on less labor-intensive goods - textiles, paper industry, etc. Later, they all switched to exporting technologically more complex, more capital- and labor-intensive goods, despite the fact that the speed of change in export specializations in each tap was different .
Some countries have achieved export growth through effective government industrial policy, identifying promising industries. This policy has led to positive results in the development of modern technological products that require investment for production and promotion to global markets. In this case, state support, mobilization of private capital and infrastructure development ensure export growth in a relatively short period of time .
The development of exports entails the growth of exports in combination with qualitative and structural transformations of the economy. However, high export growth without structural transformations of export schemes (for example, increasing the concentration of exports in some products under conditions of greater price fluctuations) does not contribute to overall development. Thus, it is very important that the country exports to the world market.
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