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26.08.2022 15:28

[3. Технічні науки]

Автор: Bondarenko Andrii, D.Sc.Tech, prof., Dnipro University of Technology, Dnipro, Ukraine

The current conditions of the mining and processing industry of the economy of Ukraine requires the innovative approach to the implementation of construction sand mining and processing technologies, which will contribute to the improvement of the quality of raw materials and decrease of their cost. The survey and analysis of sand and gravel deposits located on the territory of Ukraine shows that a significant number of them are flooded and require hydromechanized development technology [1]. The economic expediency of using the method of development similar deposits with floating pump dredgers during hydraulic transport of mining mass to hydraulic dumps or processing areas is substantiated in previous works [2].

The analysis of physical and mechanical characteristics shows that the sands of almost all known deposits rarely meet the current regulatory documents. Such a condition of raw materials requires paying attention not only to the use of modern mining technologies, but also to focus more on the implementation of innovative technologies for the processing and enrichment of non-ore sands. Modern standards require cleaning sands for construction needs from large inclusions, such as gravel classes, lumpy clay, plant residues, etc., as well as small dusty and clay impurities.

Thus, the development of an innovative integrated approach to the development of flooded deposits of non-ore sands that combines the rational technology of extraction, transportation and enrichment of the mineral is an urgent and important scientific and technical problem.

The simplest and most attractive for active domestic mining enterprises is the method of cleaning sandy raw materials from clay impurities by warehousing on the hydraulic dumps. However, the disadvantage of this method of processing is the significant amount of bulldozer and excavator works, the constant change in the hydrodynamic mode of operation of the hydrotransport system, significant losses of minerals due to the accumulation of clay impurities in the hydraulic dumps. The given short list of disadvantages does not allow recommending this technology for mass use, despite its simplicity.

The use of processing equipment, which works in a complex with mining machines such as pump dredgers, directly at the quarry site of processing will contribute to the improvement of the commercial products quality while simultaneously reducing operating costs [3]. Of all the variety of installations known and available for use in the hydromechanized method of processing non-ore sands, there are: washing and scoop drainage machine (Germany), sand enrichment plant FinesMaster Powerscreen (United Kingdom), gravity sand washer (Ukraine) [4], direct-flow hydraulic classifier, screw classifier, etc.

It is known that the main criterion for the expediency of implementing a technological scheme for the processing of a mineral is the energy intensity or cost per unit of production. Therefore, the most economically attractive technology is the one that provides the minimum specific energy intensity, and, as a result, the minimum cost of processing a unit of production.

According to the results of the design work carried out by specialists of the Design and Construction Bureau of Hydraulic Technologies of Mining (Dnipro University of Technology, Dnipro, Ukraine), a technical and economic comparison of some technological schemes for the processing of non-ore sands from the above list was carried out. At the same time, the calculations were performed on the basis of real data received from mining enterprises, manufacturers and official representatives that sell processing installations on the territory of Ukraine. According to the results of such an analysis, the economic feasibility of using a technological complex consisting of "pump dredge - slurry pipeline - processing plant" on the basis of the processing equipment gravity sand washer developed by specialists of Design and Construction Bureau "Hydraulic Technologies of Mining" was established. Gravity sand washer is an installation for processing, that is, classifying and washing sand, which is recommended for removing gravel, lumps of clay, garbage, clayey, silty and finely dispersed sludge and obtaining high-quality marketable sand. The installation consists of a bar inclined grizzly, a horizontal hydraulic classifier, dewatering screens, slurry bunkers, belt conveyors, water and slurry pipelines, support structures and service platforms. The technical solution is protected by patents of Ukraine. The rational parameters of the main elements of the installation are substantiated using the results of theoretical, laboratory, research and industrial scientific studies, carried out in the course of research and design works [5-8].

Список літератури

1. Бондаренко А.О. Гірничі машини для відкритих гірничих робіт : Навч. посібник / А.О. Бондаренко . – Дніпро: ДВНЗ «Національний гірничий університет», 2017. – 123с.

2. Bondarenko, A. A., 2018. Theoretical bases of pulp suction process in the shallow dredge underwater face. Naukovyi Visnyk Natsionalnoho Hirnychoho Universytetu, 3, pp. 22‒29. DOI: 10.29202/nvngu/2018-3/4.

3. Bondarenko, A. A., 2018. Modeling of interaction of inclined surfaces of a hydraulic classifier with a flow of solid particles. Naukovyi Visnyk Natsionalnoho Hirnychoho Universytetu, 4, pp. 13‒20. DOI: 10.29202/nvngu/2018-4/5.

4. Bondarenko, A. A., Naumenko R. P. 2019. Comprehensive solution of recycling waste from stone processing industry. Naukovyi Visnyk Natsionalnoho Hirnychoho Universytetu, 4, pp. 96‒101. DOI: 10.29202/nvngu/2019-4/14.

5. Франчук В.П. Горизонтальные классификаторы. Основы теории и расчета: моногр. / В.П. Франчук, А.А. Бондаренко; М-во образования и науки Украины, Нац. горн. ун-т. – Д.: НГУ, 2016. – 111 с.

6. Бондаренко А.А. Математическое моделирование движения частиц под влиянием скоростного напора/ А.А. Бондаренко // Металургійна та гірничорудна промисловість. – 2013. – №1. – С. 66 – 68.

7. Бондаренко А.А. Обоснование параметров горизонтального классификатора путем изучения взаимодействия твердой частицы с потоком жидкости /      А.А. Бондаренко // Зб. наук. праць Дніпродзержинського держ. техн. ун-ту. Технічні науки. – 2013. – №3(23). – С. 114 – 119.

8. Бондаренко А.О. Розробка математичної моделі руху потоку в класифікаторі гідравлічному горизонтальному / В.П. Франчук, А.О. Бондаренко // Віс-ник ЖДТУ. Технічні науки. – 2013. – № 3(66). – С. 140 – 149.

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