THE BENEFITS OF USING CAPSULES
[1. Інформаційні системи і технології]
Автор: Zemlіanska Yu.O., student, Kyiv National University of Technologies and Design, Kyiv
Extensive possibilities of prescribing drugs in the form of capsules led to an increase in their production and consumption. Capsules tend to be popular among consumers because they are known to enter the bloodstream almost immediately. There are two different types of capsules, soft capsules and hard capsules. They are in fact tasteless gelatin containers to store the active medicine which in general is unpalatable as such because of bad taste. Interest in gelatin capsules is due to their high bioavailability and a number of advantages: they have a good appearance; easily swallowed; permeable to digestive juices; the therapeutic effect of the content is manifested in 5-10 minutes after administration; gelatin shell is impermeable to volatile liquids, gases, oxygen (which is very important for the storage of funds that are easily oxidized); placement in the shell is convenient for the release of substances that have a coloring effect or an unpleasant taste and odor, because its destruction and release of active substances occurs in a certain part of the digestive tract.
Hard gelatin capsules are used to enclose the powdered drug and soft gelatin capsules are used to enclose oily substances like vitamin E. Capsules are meant for swallowing. The shell will dissolve easily in the stomach and the contents inside will be released. Capsules (from Latin- literally case, box). In pharmacy, a capsule is a soft, hard, hard dosage form that contains a single dose of one or more active ingredients. The first reports of capsules as a dosage form were found in the Ebers Papyrus, dated to about 1500 BC. The next mention is in 1730, when the Venetian pharmacist de Pauli made a waxed capsule in order to "hide" the bad taste of pure turpentine. One hundred years later (1833), a patent was issued in Paris to the pharmacists Mote and Dublan, who used the original method of obtaining gelatin capsules — immersing leather bags with mercury in a melt of gelatin. In 1874, Hubel of Detroit designed an industrial apparatus for making capsules by immersion, and for the first time, large quantities of capsules were obtained. He also proposed a capsule size numbering system.
The capsule shell is made of gelatin or other substances that can form a film with certain properties. Excipients that perform various functions are also added to the capsules: plasticizers, antimicrobial preservatives, stabilizers, dyes, flavors, etc. Capsules are intended for oral, less often for rectal, vaginal and other routes of administration. Depending on the site of action, the capsules are divided into sublingual, gastrointestinal, soluble, rectal, vaginal.
A separate group consists of capsules with adjustable rate and completeness of release of the active substance. Modified-release capsules contain special excipients in the contents or shell (or both at the same time) designed to change the rate or location of release of the active substances. They can be made by coating hard or soft capsules with an acid-resistant shell or filled with granules or particles coated with shells.
Capsules are hard or soft. The shell of the hard capsules consists of two prefabricated parts, into which the active substance (s) is encapsulated, usually in a solid state. Hard capsules are filled after the entire technological process of molding, they will acquire the appropriate elasticity and become solid. Soft capsules get their name because the filler fits into a soft, yet elastic shell during the manufacturing process. The capsules are then subjected to further technological processes, as a result of which the initial elasticity of the shell may be lost in part or in full.
Extensive possibilities of prescribing drugs in the form of capsules led to an increase in their production and consumption. So, abroad among the dosed drugs of industrial production drugs in capsules take the 3rd place after tablets and ampouled solutions.
A variety of сapsules is a spansula - a hard capsule for internal use, which may contain a mixture of granules, microdrugs, microcapsules of different types, capable of dissolving in a certain environment with different release times of the active substance (substances). In Ukraine, the range of encapsulated drugs is under development, expanding every year.
Rectal capsules (Latin capsulae rectales) - a dosage form consisting of active and excipients contained in a soft shell, and is intended for rectal use. Rectal capsules were first proposed to cover laxative suppositories in 1937 by Scherer, and only in 1980 did the BTF introduce the article "Rectal Capsules", which sets requirements for rectal dosage forms of torpedo-shaped form. A special place among rectal dosage forms is occupied by rectal gelatin cells, which have high bioavailability.
The results show that the amount of drug that has the desired therapeutic effect in the capsule is half the dose of suppositories, so the production of rectal capsules can save expensive biologically active ingredients and reduce the cost of many drugs. The production of rectal gelatin capsules is automated and allows to replace the expensive imported suppository base - cocoa butter.
Therefore, the capsules are very promising for use in pediatrics and gerontology. A wide range of encapsulated drugs is manufactured abroad. Encapsulate drugs of different chemical nature and direction of action, including herbal preparations, vitamins, antibiotics and their mixtures in various combinations with other substances, hypnotics, anticonvulsants, tranquilizers, anthelmintics, laxatives, diuretics, analgesics, complex combinations of vitamins with microelements. Especially many combinations of acetylsalicylic acid with various substances (ascorbic acid, atropine, barbiturates, camphor, phenacetin, ephedrine, etc.).
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